GeoTLDs

What are geoTLDs?

A geoTLD is a type of Top-Level Domain (TLD). What’s a TLD? A TLD is a domain at the highest level of the Domain Name System of the Internet. The TLD ‘string’ comes at the end of the address, for example, .com whose string is “com”, or .info whose string is “info”.

Generic top-level domains (gTLDs) are TLDs that do not represent a country or official territory. In 2012, ICANN (the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) began a process to create new gTLDs, including geoTLDs.

geoTLDs are a type of gTLD. They include:

  • Geographic names such as .berlin, .corsica, istanbul or .africa
  • Geographic identifiers such as .nyc (New York) or .bcn (Barcelona)
  • Names of geographic origin such as .irish or .gal (Galicia)

geoTLDs are intended to serve a geographic place, language or culture. They also include Internationalized Domain Names (IDN), that allow different languages to use their own character sets. For example, geoTLDs now include ابوظبي (Abu Dhabi) and 广东 (Guangdong Province, China).

Current geoTLDs

Here are all fifty-one geoTLDs delegated (i.e. already live) or contracted with ICANN, so far.

geoTLD String
geoTLD Operator (link to application) Country
ABUDHABI Abu Dhabi Systems and Information Centre AE
AFRICA ZA Central Registry NPC trading as Registry.Africa US
ALSACE REGION D ALSACE FR
AMSTERDAM Gemeente Amsterdam NL
BAR Punto 2012 Sociedad Anonima Promotora de Inversion de Capital Variable MX
BARCELONA Municipi de Barcelona ES
BAYERN Bayern Connect GmbH DE
BERLIN dotBERLIN GmbH & Co. KG DE
BRUSSELS DNS.be vzw BE
BUDAPEST Minds + Machines Group Limited US
CAPETOWN ZA Central Registry NPC trading as ZA Central Registry ZA
COLOGNE NetCologne Gesellschaft für Telekommunikation mbH DE
CYMRU Nominet UK GB
DOHA Communications Regulatory Authority (CRA) QA
DUBAI Dubai Smart Government Department AE
DURBAN ZA Central Registry NPC trading as ZA Central Registry ZA
GENT COMBELL GROUP NV/SA BE
HAMBURG Hamburg Top-Level-Domain GmbH DE
HELSINKI City of Helsinki FI
ISTANBUL Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality TR
JOBURG ZA Central Registry NPC trading as ZA Central Registry ZA
KOELN NetCologne Gesellschaft für Telekommunikation mbH DE
KYOTO Academic Institution: Kyoto Jyoho Gakuen JP
LONDON Dot London Domains Limited GB
MADRID Comunidad de Madrid ES
MELBOURNE The Crown in right of the State of Victoria, represented by its Department of State Development, Business and Innovation AU
MIAMI Top Level Domain Holdings Limited US
MOSCOW Foundation for Assistance for Internet Technologies and Infrastructure Development (FAITID) RU
NAGOYA GMO Registry, Inc. JP
NRW Minds + Machines GmbH DE
NYC The City of New York by and through the New York City Department of Information Technology & Telecommunications US
OKINAWA BusinessRalliart inc. JP
OSAKA Interlink Co., Ltd. JP
PARIS City of Paris FR
QUEBEC PointQuébec Inc CA
RIO Empresa Municipal de Informática SA – IPLANRIO BR
SAARLAND dotSaarland GmbH DE
STOCKHOLM Stockholms kommun SE
SYDNEY State of New South Wales, Department of Premier and Cabinet AU
TAIPEI Taipei City Government TW
TIROL punkt Tirol GmbH AT
TOKYO GMO Registry, Inc. JP
VLAANDEREN DNS.be vzw BE
WALES Nominet UK GB
WIEN punkt.wien GmbH AT
YOKOHAMA GMO Registry, Inc. JP
ZUERICH Kanton Zürich (Canton of Zurich) CH
москва Foundation for Assistance for Internet Technologies and Infrastructure Development (FAITID) RU
ابوظبي Abu Dhabi Systems and Information Centre AE
佛山 Guangzhou YU Wei Information Technology Co., Ltd. CN
广东 Guangzhou YU Wei Information Technology Co., Ltd. CN

Source: https://gtldresult.icann.org/application-result/applicationstatus/viewstatus

Further GeoTLDs

Here are the geoTLD applicants that applied to ICANN in the 2012 new gTLD round, but were not considered to be geoTLDs according to the ICANN rules. Some were nonetheless approved, but not strictly as geoTLDs:

GeoTLD String according to ICANN GeoTLD Operator (link to application) Country
AQUITAINE* Région d’Aquitaine FR
AMAZON* Amazon, Inc. US
BCN* Municipi de Barcelona ES
BZH* Association www.bzh FR
CATALONIA*-** Generalitat de Catalunya ES
CORSICA* Collectivité Territoriale de Corse  FR
EUS* Puntueus Fundazioa ES, FR
GAL* Asociación puntoGAL ES, PR
FRL* FRLregistry B.V. NL
IRISH* Dot-Irish LLC US
IST* Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality TR
PATAGONIA*-** Patagonia, Inc.  AR
PYC* Rusnames Limited  RU
ROMA** Top Level Domain Holdings Limited TH
RUHR* regiodot GmbH & Co. KG DE
RYUKYU* BusinessRalliart inc. JP
SCOT* Dot Scot Registry Limited GB
SWISS* Swiss Confederation  CH
TATA* TATA SONS LIMITED RU
TATAR* Limited Liability Company “Coordination Center of Regional Domain of Tatarstan Republic”  RU
THAI*-** Better Living Management Company Limited  TH
TUI*** TUI AG TH
VEGAS* Dot Vegas, Inc. US
ZULU** Minds + Machines Group Limited US

* The Geographic Names Panel has determined that the string does not fall within the criteria for a geographic name contained in the Applicant Guidebook Section 2.2.1.4.

** Withdrawn application

*** The Geographic Names Panel has determined that the string falls within the criteria for a geographic name contained in the Applicant Guidebook Section 2.2.1.4. The applicant was contacted to provide documentation of support/non-objection per Section 2.2.1.4.3 of the Applicant Guidebook.

Source: https://gtldresult.icann.org/application-result/applicationstatus/viewstatu

Further information

At Wikipedia you will find an entry on GeoTLDs at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GeoTLD